Abbreviation
Term
Function/Description
ADSL
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
Type of internet connection working through the copper wires of your landline.
BIOS
Basic Input/Output System
A software your device uses on startup.
BPL
Broadband over Powerlines
Type of internet connection transmitted over electrical power lines.
CLI
Command Line Interface
Allows users to process commands to a computer program in the form of lines of text.
cmd
Command Prompt
The default CLI for Microsoft Windows.
CPU
Central Processing Unit
The main processor, or brain of a computer. It performs basic arithmetic, logic input/output, and controlling operations specified by the instructions of a program
DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
A network management protocol used to automatically configure devices on IP networks. 
DNS
Domain Name System
Converts hostnames such as www.google.com to computer-friendly IP addresses such as 192.168.1.1
DSL
Digital Subscriber Line
Type of internet service allowing a user access to the internet through the phone line.
FTTC 
Fibre-To-The-Cabinet
Type of fibre internet connection which runs from the exchange to the cabinet, and through copper lines to the home.
FTTH
Fibre-To-The-Home
Type of fibre internet service which runs directly to the home.
FUP
Fair Usage Policy
Data limit set by the provider.
GB
Gigabyte
Unit of measurement for storage capacity or file size.
Gbps
Gigabit per Second
Measures data transfer rate. 1Gbps equals 1000Mbps.
GHz
Gigahertz
A derived unit of frequency.
GPU
Graphics Processing Unit
A specialized processor in a device to accelerate graphics rendering.
GUI
Graphical User Interface
A visual interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphic elements, instead of a command-line interface (CLI).
HDD
Hard Disk Drive
Mechanical storage device which stores and retrieves digital data using magnetic storage.
ISP
Internet Service Provider
The industry term for a company that provides internet service.
IMAP
Instant Message Access Protocol
A standard internet protocol allowing users to retrieve emails hosted by an online server. These emails will be kept online unless manually removed and can be accessed anywhere from any device.
IP
Internet Protocol
A set of rules dictating how data is exchanged online. An IP address is a numerical label for each device connected to a network that uses the internet protocol for communication.
Kbps
Kilobits per Second
Measures data transfer rate. 1,000Kbps equals 1Mbps.
LAN
Local Area Network
A computer network that interconnects devices within a limited area such as offices, universities, schools, and homes.
LTE
Long Term Evolution
A term for a specific type of 4G service.
MB
Megabyte
Measurement for file sizes or storage capacity.
Mbps
Megabits per Second
Measures data transfer rate. 1000Mbps equals 1Gbps.
ms
Milliseconds
Measurement of time. Often used when referring to Ping.
NAT
Network Address Translation
A router will group multiple device's IP addresses in a local network, then translate them into one single public IP address.
NFC
Near Field Communication
Set of communication protocols for transmitting data between two electronic devices up to a distance of 4cm. Most commonly used on phones to transfer data wirelessly.
NIC
Network Interface Card
A hardware component embedded into the device that allows you to connect to a network. Each device's NIC has different capabilities which may impact speeds.
OS
Operating System
System software that allows you to control and manage the computer's hardware and software resources. Windows, macOS, and Linux are all types of operating systems.
PDF
Portable Document Format
Type of file format. It can present documents, images, and text formatting in certain applications.
POE
Power Over Ethernet
Allows electrical power through the ethernet cable along with the data. Some wireless internet providers use this method to power an antenna, to avoid running a separate power cable.
POP3
Post Office Protocol
Mail protocol used to download emails from your internet mail server. Once downloaded, the emails are removed from the online server.
RAM
Random Access Memory
Allows applications to store and access data on a short-term basis. The more applications or programs running, the more RAM required.
ROM
Read-Only Memory
Electronic storage built into a device that cannot be electronically modified.
SMTP
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
A communication protocol that allows electronic mail transmission.
SSD
Solid State Drive
A storage device that uses flash-based memory. It is now replacing HDD due to its operating speed.
SSID
Service Set Identifier
Wireless routers broadcast out SSIDs, commonly known as a wireless network name or signal.
UPS
Uninterruptible Power Supply
An electrical device that provides emergency power should the main power fail.
URL
Uniform Resource Locator
A web address that is given to a certain piece of resource on the web.
VDSL
Very High Bit Rate Digital Subscriber Line
Type of internet connection working through the copper wires of your landline, which is faster than ADSL.
VoIP
A phone service that is delivered over the internet.
VPN
 Virtual Private Network
Allows you to create a secure connection to another network over the internet and provides privacy, anonymity and can be used to restrict access to certain websites.
VRAM
Video Random Access Memory
Is used to store image data to help with the execution of graphics displays on your screen.
WAN
Wide Area Network
Telecommunications network that is not specific to a single location.
WLAN
Wireless Local Area Network
A wireless network that allows devices to communicate and connect wirelessly, unlike LAN which communicates through ethernet cables.
WPA
Wi-Fi Protected Access
Internet security standard used for wireless internet connections.
WPA2
Wi-Fi Protected Access 2
Security method for wireless networks that provides stronger protection than WPA for network access and data control.
WWW
World Wide Web
Network information system or body of knowledge where you can access resources.